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An Encyclopedia of Naval History

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Russia under Peter I rapidly created a major navy and for most of the eighteenth century, the Danish, Swedish, and Russian navies were of the same magnitude. Even if a nation under bombardment by numerous thermonuclear weapons could continue to maintain a navy, such a war would happen too fast to permit sea power to exercise any of its traditional functions. Thus the English victory was that of a new conception of naval battle: the English ships refused to let the Spanish ships get close enough for boarding and pounded them with guns of superior firing capability.

Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single entry from a reference work in OR for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice). Experience of war such as the Anglo-French contests up to 1559, wars in the Baltic in the 1530s and 1560s, and the Anglo-Spanish confrontation from 1585 to 1603 showed that specialized gun-armed warships had considerable advantages over traditional great cargo carriers provided with infantry and a few guns, which were gradually abolished as combatants. It is a glimpse into a bygone world, captured shortly before the beginning of the Dreadnought naval arms race that foreshadowed the calamity of the First World War. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree. The Naval Warrant Officer's Journal suggested that the book be on every ship, and in 1902 said that it should be available to every naval officer.A Naval Encyclopdia: Comprising A Dictionary Of Nautical Words And Phrases; Biographical Notices, And Records Of Naval Officers; Special Articles Of Naval Art And Science. The result was that the personnel provided to man a fleet of those times had to be a considerable one. The new Bourbon regime in Spain launched an ambitious Atlantic naval policy that made Spain into the third largest naval power in Europe for most of the century. The only specialized warships were the oared galleys, but they could be built quickly in large numbers when a war began.

The Roman navy included two main fleets and was always highly organized, with a body of soldiers, the classici, specially assigned for service afloat. France and Spain continued with large shipbuilding programs in the 1780s, with the intention to renew the challenge against Britain in future contests in the Atlantic. The development of nuclear-powered submarines that could launch intermediate-range ballistic missiles armed with thermonuclear warheads, however, created an entirely new role for sea power, that of nuclear deterrence.The three Anglo-Dutch maritime wars from 1652 to 1674 and the rise of the new strong monarchy in France was the start for a major growth and transformation of the European fleets. The form of warships for several hundred years to come was determined in the 16th and 17th centuries, when oar propulsion was replaced by arrays of sails and when cannons were mounted on ships. The Navy did not do much during World War I (1914–18), but it played a major role in the combat of World War II (1939–45), especially in the Pacific campaign. The first steam-powered vessels in the navy were the paddle-driven frigates/sloops of the 1820s, but the navy's ships in the Crimean War did not look much different from those of 75 years before. Products shown, tagged or featured on YouTube by creators are sold by merchants and are subject to merchant's terms and conditions.

S. naval forces at Pearl Harbor definitively established that aircraft-carrier–launched bomber planes could sink any and all surface ships, including battleships. They were now primarily used for routine patrols and transfer of troops, and all major Mediterranean powers created sailing navies as their main force at sea during the seventeenth century. After the disorganization of the Byzantine Empire by Turkish invasions in the 12th century, the Byzantine navy withered. Russia had by then a fleet of around 45,000 tonnes in theBlack Sea, while Venice since the mid-eighteenth century had maintained a navy of around 20,000 tonnes.

In 1546, Henry VIII's last year, the Navy Board was formed from the navy's principal officers: it was destined to serve as the executant of the fleet's construction, maintenance, and supply, the country's largest industrial undertaking until the 19th cent. A large modern navy includes aircraft carriers, cruisers, destroyers, frigates, submarines, minesweepers and minelayers, gunboats, and various types of support, supply, and repair ships, as well as naval bases and ports. The average size of European ships-ofthe-line grew from around 1,200 modern displacement tonnes in 1680 to 2,400 displacement tonnes in 1790. The first of these challenges came from a new combination of naval powers, France and Spain, which began to act as allies in the eighteenth-century struggle over colonies and trade in America and Asia. The other main type comprised the lighter and faster cruisers, of which the largest was the frigate, a vessel with one or two decks of guns of lesser calibre than those of the main fighting ships.

Guns and specialized warships were expensive, and only states were able to make major naval investments. The names of Hawkins, Pepys, and Barham are inseparable from its record, strained though the board's relations with the policy-making Board of Admiralty often were.Modern combat ships fall into three major categories: (1) ships that fight chiefly by means of the aircraft launched from their decks, i. The size of the permanent navies became increasingly important for the control of the sea for offensive and defensive purposes and for diplomatic influence.

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